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The Vinci engine with its long expansion nozzle in the vacuum chamber of the ESA test stand P4.1



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The Vinci engine with its long expansion nozzle in the vacuum chamber of the ESA test stand P4.1
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Upper stage engines operate in the vacuum of space. Because of this, their expansion nozzle needs to be longer and to have a larger ratio between the exit cross-section and the throat cross-section than main stage engines, which begin their operations under surface conditions, with an ambient pressure of one bar.
Credit: DLR.