Transport has its focus on projects dealing with terrestrial vehicles. Although many technical developments, in particular with respect to lightweight and damage-tolerant structures, can be transferred from aeronautical research, the traffic-related aspects are still so specific that these projects can be more efficiently coordinated within an own focal field of research. Within this research field the Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems significantly contributes to the subject road vehicles, e.g. novel vehicle structures, and to rail vehicles, e.g. the Next Generation Train project. The main challenge in the transport research area is achieving sustainable mobility balanced between economy, society and ecology, ensuring the mobility of people and goods, protecting the environment and resources, and improving safety. The transport research field is characterised by a systematic approach aiming at concrete prospects for application by using multiple synergies, and by a strategic cooperation with partners from science and commerce.