In the antenna working group, a variety of methods for beamforming and –steering is investigated and further developed. Two classes of algorithms can be distinguished. On the one hand there are deterministic, i.e. data-independent procedures. Here the weighting coefficients mentioned above are adjusted on the basis of additional information and desired characteristics of the diagram. This also comprises the classical procedures for antenna pattern synthesis.
In the second class, the statistical procedures, the real antenna signals are included into the computation of the weights by the algorithms. For this reason statistic procedures are limited to digital beamforming in the case of reception. The advantage lies in the fact that with the help of mathematical procedures information can be extracted from the received signals, which is used for the determination of an optimal antenna pattern according to certain criteria in the statistical sense. An example is the determination of the direction of arrival (DOA) of interfering signals and the subsequent minimization of noise by undisturbed reception of the information signal and simultaneous fading out of the detected interferers. The figure shows an antenna pattern where the principle of linear constrained minimum variance (LCMV) was used for this purpose.