Positioning in buildings and other environments where GNSS reception is difficult will require a combination of sensors and other information such as building plans in order to function accurately. We are pursuing sensor fusion approaches that combine GNSS, foot mounted inertial sensors electronic compasses, baro-altimeters, maps and active RFID tags. A particularly powerful combination is INS step measurement in conjunction with maps which can converge to the correct position after less than a minute of motion. We have developed a two-layer sensor fusion architecture that operates with a Kalman filter where possible, and fuses other sensors and maps at a higher-level, lower rate, particle filter. In buildings, a few dispersed RFID tags or even moderately GNSS reception can significantly aid the overall positioning.
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