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Noise is one of the most important environmental problems in the vicinity of traffic installations such as airports, roads and railway lines. Traffic noise originates from propulsion, wheels and air flow and is emitted into the atmosphere. The propagation of sound waves in the atmosphere is largely determined by refraction, absorption and scattering depending on the actual state of the atmosphere. Reflections and diffractions at the topography (vegetation, buildings, hills etc.) cause further modifications. Since the topography again influences the atmosphere, the complete system of atmosphere, topography and sound field has to be considered.
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