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Instruments and Methods
Instruments and Methods
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Global models of the atmosphere are traditionally used in weather forecasting and climate research. Global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models predict the temporal development of the state of the atmosphere within a period of one or two weeks on the basis of an accurate as possible analysis of the initial conditions. The spatial resolution can be as high as the available computer capacity permits.
The global climate model ECHAM was developed by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg/Germany and by the University of Hamburg. At present the model version 5 is mainly used at the institute.
The numerical global atmosphere-chemistry model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) is a modular global climate and chemistry simulation system with sub-models for the calculation of processes in the troposphere and the middle atmosphere, their interaction with the ocean and land surfaces, and of anthropogenic influences.
The dynamic core of the ICON (icosahedral non-hydrostatic general circulation model) is a joint of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Meteorology and the German Weather Service. The climate version of ICON, developed at MPI for Meteorology, combines this new dynamic core with the physics approaches of the climate model ECHAM. Icon is designed for massive parallel computer architectures. The ICON model is still under development; it should become the future German climate model.
The Earth System Model Validation Tool (ESMValTool) is a diagnostics tool for the routine evaluation of Earth System Models (ESMs) with observations. It tests the representation of climatological means, trends and variability of essential climate variables (ECVs) in the models on a range of temporal and spatial scales and additionally includes process-oriented evaluation.
Mesoscale models are numerical tools which resolve atmospheric processes of spatial scales between 2 and 1000 km. They solve the conservation equations of mass, momentum, internal energy and diverse air constituents with different physical approximations.
Microscale models of the atmosphere are designed to simulate small-scale flow systems (e.g. turbulence, vortices, air flows over obstacles) with a horizontal length scale ranging between a few meters and some 100 m.
Sound propagation models
The Institute of Atmospheric Physics develops and operates advanced sound propagation models. In combination with meteorological mesoscale and microscale models they describe the system of atmosphere, topography and sound waves in a consistent manner.
Radiative Transport Models
At the Institute of Atmospheric Physics numerical models including different methods are used to study radiative transfer in the atmosphere and the interaction between radiation and clouds or aerosol. Examples for applied methods are DISORT (Discrete Ordinate), a fast two-stream variant for the calculation of radiation fluxes, and MYSTIC (Monte Carlo Code for the Physically Correct Tracing of Photons in Cloudy Atmospheres), which are part of the program package libRadtran (Library for Radiative Transfer).
Prediction of Condensation Trails
The "Contrail Cirrus Prediction Tool" CoCiP has been developed to simulate contrail cirrus resulting from a single flight as well as from a fleet of cruising aircraft, flight by flight, regionally or globally. The method predicts contrail cirrus for given air traffic and weather prediction data.
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