MIRO – A versatile robot for medical applications
The DLR MIRO robot
Please cite DLR as the source for the images. For example: "Image: DLR"
The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is sparse. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopaedics to setting holes for bone screws, robot-assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for (endoscopic) minimal invasive surgery.
The DLR MIRO wins the iF product design award 2009 in the category "advanced studies". The design of the DLR MIRO has been created in cooperation with Tilo Wüsthoff - Industrial design, Munich.
Surgical robotic systems can be divided into two major groups: specialized and versatile systems. Specialized systems focus either on a dedicated surgical technique or on the treatment of a specific medical disease. In contrast, the design approach of the DLR MIRO and the earlier generation KineMedic aim at a compact, slim and lightweight robot arm as a versatile core component for various existing and future medical robotic procedures.
By adding specialized instruments and modifying the application workflows within the robot control, the MIRO robot can be adapted to many different surgical procedures. This versatility has been achieved by the design of the robotic arm itself and by the flexibility of the robot control architecture.
The DLR MIRO is a
Seven torque-controlled joints allow a more flexible operating room (OR) setup and can be used to avoid collisions with other robots or operating room equipment. The joint units integrate both position and torque sensors, so that the robot can be used in impedance-controlled mode, allowing sensitive movements of the robot effected by the surgeon (“hands-on robotics”) and avoiding unintended collisions, as well as very precise manipulation in position-controlled mode. Precision can be further enhanced by external navigation system controlled positioning.
Close interaction with technical systems demand understanding of the system, thus a central design issue of the MIRO robot is an inherent predictability of the system’s actions for the user. To achieve this, a serial kinematics with seven degrees of freedom which resembles those of the human arm has been developed and optimized for medical procedures. The joint morphology groups the MIRO arm in a dedicated shoulder (roll-pitch-yaw), upper arm, elbow (pitch-roll), forearm and wrist (pitch-roll), each group with intersecting axes.
The MIRO robot arm is a highly integrated mechatronic system. Beside motors, gears, and safety brakes the robot arm integrates torque- and position sensors, power electronics, and programmable logic electronics in each joint. The different joint electronics are connected by a high performance communication bus, which allows outsourcing the joint control to the external supply module.
Beside the classical control of the robot by a planned trajectory, the robot offers the possibility of applications in the soft robotics approach. With the integrated torque sensing, the robot can be operated impedance controlled and gravity compensated. This allows the user to directly interact with the robot, because external forces and torques are sensed and used in closed-loop control algorithms.
MIRO handout 2010
The DLR MIRO robot as part of the MiroSurge system. Please reference:Konietschke R, Hagn U, Nickl M, Jörg S, Tobergte A, Passig G, Seibold U, Le-Tien L, Kuebler B, Gröger M, Fröhlich F, Rink Ch, Albu-Schäffer A, Grebenstein M, Ortmaier T, Hirzinger G (2009) The DLR Miro Surge - A Robotic System for Surgery. Video presented at ICRA 2009
First robot-assisted ostetomy tests with the DLR MIRO robot in collaboration with the Clinic for Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Klinikum Rechts der Isar Munich, 2009Please cite DLR as the source for the videos. For example: "Video: DLR"
Robot-assisted, navigated biopsy application with the KineMedic (DLR's first generation of medical robots)Please cite DLR as the source for the videos. For example: "Video: DLR"
Hagn, U. (2011) The Aspect of Versatility in the Design of a Lightweight Robot for Surgical Applications, doctor thesis, University of Hannover, 2011, ISBN 978-3-86853-797-0
Hagn, U.; Ortmaier, T.; Konietschke, R.; Kuebler, B.; Seibold, U.; Tobergte, A.; Nickl, M.; Joerg, S.; Hirzinger, G.: Telemanipulators for Remote Minimally Invasive Surgery. In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine (RAM), 2008;15(4):28-38. DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2008.929925
Hagn, U., Nickl, M., Jörg, S., Tobergte, A., Kübler, B., Passig, G., Gröger, M., Fröhlich, F., Seibold, U., Konietschke, R., Le-Tien, L., Albu-Schäffer, A., Grebenstein, M., Ortmaier, T., and Hirzinger, G. (2008), “DLR MIROSURGE – towards versatility in surgical robotics”, in Proceedings of curac.08, 2008,7. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Computer- und Roboterassistierte Chirurgie e.V., Leipzig, ISBN 978-3-00-025798-8, pp. 143-146
Hagn, U., Nickl, M., Jörg, S., Passig, G., Bahls, T., Nothhelfer, A., Hacker, F., Le-Tien, L., Albu-Schäffer, A., Konietschke, R., Grebenstein, M., Warpup, R., Haslinger, R., Frommberger, M., and Hirzinger, G. (2008), “The DLR MIRO: a versatile lightweight robot for surgical applications", Industrial Robot, 2008, Vol. 35, Issue 4, Page 324 – 336, ISSN: 0143-991X
Jörg, S., Nickl M., Hirzinger, G. (2006): Flexible Signal-Oriented Hardware Abstraction for Rapid Prototyping of Robotic Systems. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Peking, October, 2006
Ortmaier, T., Weiss, H., Ott, Ch., Hirzinger, G. (2006): A Soft Robotics Approach for Navigated Pedicle Screw Placement - first experimental results. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS) 2006, Osaka, Japan
Ortmaier, T., Weiss, H., Hagn, U., Grebenstein, M., Nickl, M., Albu-Schäffer, A., Ott, Ch., Jörg, S., Konietschke, R., Le-Tien, L., Hirzinger, G. (2006): A Hands-On-Robot for Accurate Placement of Pedicle Screws. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2006, Orlando, Florida, USA