Motion compensation is a highly desired functionality in minimally invasive beating heart surgery.
Before motion compensation in beating heart surgery can be performed, organ motion arising from the patient's respiration or heart beat has to be coped with. Therefore, the reliable measurement of this motion is an essential part of an advanced minimally invasive robotic surgery system (tracking block in the inner part of the figure).
Online prediction is also necessary to overcome the delays (data acquisition and processing, communication, etc.) which deteriorate the performance of the visual servoing control loop closed (inner part of the figure).
Robust motion compensation requires the synchronous movement of heart surface and instrument, such that the relative distance/orientation between the tool centre point of the instrument and selected points on the heart surface remains almost constant. This involves the elimination of the above-mentioned delays.
Martin Groeger, Klaus Arbter, and Gerd Hirzinger, "Motion Tracking for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery", in Medical Robotics, V. Bozovic, Ed., Vienna, Austria: I-Tech Education and Publishing, pp. 117 - 148.
Martin Groeger, and Gerd Hirzinger, "Image stabilisation of the beating heart by local linear interpolation", in SPIE Medical Imaging, Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures and Display, San Diego, USA, February 2006.
Martin Groeger, and Gerd Hirzinger, "Optical flow to analyse stabilised images of the beating heart", in International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications (VISAPP), Setubal, Portugal, 2006, pp. 237 - 244.
Martin Groeger, Klaus Arbter and Gerd Hirzinger, "Analysis of colour distributions of anodised titanium clips and the heart surface for tracking", in Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM), H. Handels, J. Ehrhardt, A. Horsch, H.-P. Meinzer, T. Tolxdorf, Eds., Hamburg, Germany: Springer, 2006, pp. 355 - 358.
Martin Groeger, Wolfgang Sepp, and Gerd Hirzinger, Gerd "Structure driven substitution of specular reflections for realtime heart surface tracking", in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Genova, Italy, 2005, pp. 1066 - 1069.
Martin Groeger, Tobias Ortmaier, and Gerd Hirzinger, "Structure tensor based substitution of specular reflections for improved heart surface tracking", in Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin, H.-P. Meinzer, H. Handels, A. Horsch, T. Tolxdorff, Eds., Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2005, pp. 242 - 246.