Motion Compensation in Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery

Motion compensation is a highly desired functionality in minimally invasive beating heart surgery.

zum Bild compensation

Before motion compensation in beating heart surgery can be performed, organ motion arising from the patient's respiration or heart beat has to be coped with. Therefore, the reliable measurement of this motion is an essential part of an advanced minimally invasive robotic surgery system (tracking block in the inner part of the figure).

Online prediction is also necessary to overcome the delays (data acquisition and processing, communication, etc.) which deteriorate the performance of the visual servoing control loop closed (inner part of the figure).

Robust motion compensation requires the synchronous movement of heart surface and instrument, such that the relative distance/orientation between the tool centre point of the instrument and selected points on the heart surface remains almost constant. This involves the elimination of the above-mentioned delays.


  • MIROSURGE, funded by the Bayerische Forschungstiftung
  • ACCUROBAS, a project in the 6th EU Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development
  • SFB 453, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 453 of the DFG


Groeger, Martin; Arbter, Klaus; Hirzinger, Gerd (2008): Motion Tracking for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery. In: Bozovic, V. [Hrsg.]: Medical Robotics, I-Tech Education and Publishing, Vienna, Austria, S. 117 - 148

Groeger, Martin; Hirzinger, Gerd (2006): Image stabilisation of the beating heart by local linear interpolation. In: Cleary, K.R.; Galloway, R.L. [Hrsg.]: SPIE Medical Imaging, Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display, San Diego, USA, 2006-02-11 - 2006-02-16

Groeger, Martin; Hirzinger, Gerd (2006): Optical flow to analyse stabilised images of the beating heart. In: Ranchordas, A.; Araujo, H.; Encarnacao, B. [Hrsg.]:, INSTICC Press, S. 237 - 244 International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications (VISAPP), Setubal, Portugal

Groeger, Martin; Arbter, Klaus; Hirzinger, Gerd (2006): Analysis of colour distributions of anodised titanium clips and the heart surface for tracking. In: Handels, H.; Ehrhardt, J.; Horsch, A.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Tolxdorf, T. [Hrsg.]: Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM), Springer, S. 355 - 358, -, Hamburg, 2006-03

Groeger, Martin; Sepp, Wolfgang; Hirzinger, Gerd (2005): Structure driven substitution of specular reflections for realtime heart surface tracking. In: IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, S. 1066 - 1069, ICIP, Genova, Italy

Groeger, Martin; Ortmaier, Tobias; Hirzinger, Gerd (2005): Structure tensor based substitution of specular reflections for improved heart surface tracking. In: Meinzer, H.-P.; Handels, H.; Horsch, A.; Tolxdorff, T. [Hrsg.]: Bildverarbeitung fuer die Medizin, Springer, S. 242 - 246, BVM, Heidelberg, Germany

Martin Gröger
German Aerospace Center

Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics
, Perception and Cognition
Tel: +49 8153 28-2411

Fax: +49 8153 28-1134

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Texture-Based Tracking under Specular Reflections (