“Standard flames” refer to flames that have been studied under very precisely defined conditions, for which there are extensive experimental data sets and which can be computed using numerical simulation programs. Such well-documented flames help enormously in improving our understanding of combustion processes and are indispensable for validating and improving numerical simulation models.
The DLR Institute of Combustion Technology has made some important contributions in this field. The data sets for most standard flames include flow velocities, temperatures, concentrations of the mnajor species and flame structures. In some cases, radical concentrations, NO emissions, soot concentrations and acoustic data are also included. Among the simplest configurations are flat laminar premix flames [1,2], also as sooting high-pressure flames . Turbulent diffusion flames have been studied, both as unconfined jet flames [4,5] and as swirling flames . Swirling flames typical of gas turbines have been measured in premixed and partially premixed configurations [7, 8]. These studies were in part carried out as part of national and international cooperation projects, such as TECFLAM, NACOS and PRECCINSTA. Some of the data sets are publicly accessible, e.g. via the TNF Workshop, or can be provided on request.