Multimedia

Filter by
More galleries
Latest images
  • Image
    The Moon over Earth – extremes of planetary evolution

    The Moon over Earth – extremes of planetary evolution

    July 10, 2020 
    Credit: Rolf Hempel  |  Download

    The Moon has been orbiting Earth for almost four-and-a-half billion years. The two bodies represent two extremes of planetary evolution. The Moon was formed 4.425 billion years ago from material ejected from Earth during a massive collision with a protoplanet. It subsequently developed a magma ocean more than 1000 kilometres deep on which a crust formed. Beneath the crust, the mantle rock solidified over the course of 200 million years. Earth also had a magma ocean, but did not form a floating crust. Once the Moon had solidified, magma formed in its interior and rose to the surface. However, volcanic activity came to a halt three billion years ago and the face of the Moon has hardly changed since then.

  • Image
    One of the oldest Moon rocks

    One of the oldest Moon rocks

    July 10, 2020 
    Credit: NASA/JSC/AACO  |  Download

    For the Apollo 16 mission, a location in the central highlands of the lunar near side was selected. One goal was to bring samples from the rocks found there, the oldest on the Moon, to Earth. The objective was to determine when the Moon originated and when its first crust was formed. Sample 60025 is an iron-rich anorthosite and one of the three oldest rocks brought to Earth by the six Apollo missions. It is a feldspar rock with a high content of aluminium and calcium that solidified 4.36 billion years ago, reflecting the crystallisation of an early crust covering the magma ocean. Astronauts John Young and Charles Duke picked up the rock just 14 metres from the Lunar Module. It is almost 20 centimetres across and weighs 1836 grams. It is coarse-grained and a small section is coated by black ‘glass’, which solidified very quickly as a melt after an impact event and did not form any crystals.

  • Image
    Rock and dust samples from the Moon

    Rock and dust samples from the Moon

    July 10, 2020 
    Credit: NASA/JSC  |  Download

    One of the most important scientific tasks of the six moon landings that took place between 1969 and 1972 was the collection of lunar rock and regolith samples. The goal was to find out how old the Moon is and how it evolved. The analysis of lunar samples has shown that the bright components of the lunar surface represent the primary layer of lighter rocks such as anorthosite. These rocks are over four billion years old and have been redistributed multiple times due to the impact of asteroids. The dark areas visible to the naked eye, however, originated from iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic activity that did not begin until several hundred million years later. The image shows Alan Bean, the Lunar Module Pilot of Apollo 12, the second mission to land on the Moon, with a dust-filled sample capsule. Commander Charles Conrad is reflected on the visor.

  • Image
    Anatomy of the early Moon

    Anatomy of the early Moon

    July 10, 2020 
    Credit: DLR/Maxime Maurice  |  Download

    This model shows the interior of the Moon at an early stage, when its components began to solidify. The floating crust (grey) formed a thermally insulating layer over the remaining magma ocean (yellow) and the still partially molten lunar mantle below. The cooling of the lunar mantle occurred both by convection, that is by the circulation of material in huge cells (seen here as blue-white downward currents), and by the rising of mantle melt, which were formed locally by convection. This hot magma mixed into the remaining magma ocean and slowed down its cooling. Due to this process and the additional insulation provided by the crust, it took about 200 million years for the magma ocean to completely solidify.

  • Image
    Schematic structure of the early Moon’s interior

    Schematic structure of the early Moon’s interior

    July 10, 2020 
    Credit: DLR/Maxime Maurice  |  Download

    After the Moon was formed 4.425 billion years ago, heavy material from the solidifying magma ocean settled. The heaviest components formed a metallic core, and the lighter ones a silicate mantle. Such rocks formed from the magma ocean are also called cumulates and are heavier than the remaining melt. The exception – in a late phase of evolution of the magma ocean the mineral plagioclase, an aluminium-calcium-silicate, which belongs to the group of feldspars, was formed. Plagioclase was lighter than the melt and rose to the magma ocean’s surface, where it formed the early lunar crust. The Moon cooled down through various heat transport processes, including convection in the magma ocean and in the solid lunar mantle, but also through the transport of melts from the mantle cumulates through magmatic heat channels.

Latest videos
  • Video
    Still animation: Flight over the Korolev crater on Mars

    Animation: Flight over Korolev Crater on Mars

    July 1, 2020 
    Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO  |  Download
    Length: 00:02:40
    The video shows a simulated flight over the Korolev Crater on Mars. The interior of the two-kilometre-deep crater is covered by an 1800-metre-thick glacier all year round. This deposit forms an extensive reservoir of non-polar ice on Mars.
  • Video
    Video still: The DLR Pilot Assistance System LNAS

    DLR Pilot Assistance System LNAS

    June 22, 2020 
    Credit: YouTube/Empa  |  Download
    Length: 00:01:31
    In a joint project, the Low Noise Augmentation System LNAS was further developed for the so-called Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). This system supports pilots via display to perform quieter and more economical approaches. Noise emissions and fuel consumption are measurably reduced.The video shows two real approaches of the overall 70 valid flights with and without LNAS, which were performed by the DLR research aircraft ATRA during a test week in September 2019. The project consortium consists of the Swiss SkyLab Foundation, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Empa. The project was financed by the Federal Office of Civil Aviation, the Canton of Zurich, the Federal Office for the Environment and by the project partners' own funds.
  • Video
    Video sitll: Video - How does watery mud move on Mars?

    How does watery-mud move on Mars? Like pahoehoe lava!

    May 18, 2020 
    Credit: Geofyzikální ústav AV ČR v. v. i.  |  Download
    Length: 00:01:32
    Exploration of Mars has revealed the presence of large outflow channels which have been interpreted as the products of catastrophic flood events during which a large quantity of water was released from the subsurface. The rapid burial of water-rich sediments following such flooding may have promoted an ideal setting to trigger sedimentary volcanism, in which mixtures of rock fragments and water erupt to the surface in the form of mud.
  • Video
    Video sitll: The EU project 'AUTOPILOT'

    Internet of Things: DLR tests automated parking using an app and a drone

    April 28, 2020 
    Length: 00:03:55
    In the EU project AUTOPILOT, DLR developed and tested new driving functions. For automated parking, a driver simply leaves their car at a predefined point and sends it off using an app. They can then call it back again later in the same way. Using a drone, the system finds free parking spaces, navigates the vehicle to one and then parks it.
  • Video
    Video still - Video CIMON-2 on the ISS

    CIMON-2 on the ISS

    April 15, 2020 
    Credit: ESA/DLR/NASA  |  Download
    Length: 00:03:51
    CIMON-2 is a football-sized, free-flying, AI-enabled technology demonstrator for future astronaut assistants.

Cookies help us to provide our services. By using our website you agree that we can use cookies. Read more about our Privacy Policy and visit the following link: Privacy Policy

Main menu