The business area “Transport” focuses on projects dealing with ground transport vehicles. A number of technical developments from aeronautical research such as lightweight and damage-tolerant structures can also be applied to the development of ground transport. However, many traffic-related research aspects are very specific so that the corresponding projects can be coordinated more efficiently within a distinct area of research. The Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems significantly contributes to the advances of road and rail vehicles by developing novel, highly modular structures and cost-efficient, automated production processes. For instance, in the DLR project "Next Generation Train – Backbone of Intermodal Transport”, new analysis and simulation methods for the design of sustainable railcar structures were researched. Furthermore, multifunctional automotive structures are being developed and produced in the "Next Generation Car" project. The main challenge in this research area is achieving a mobility that balances economy, society, and ecology. Therefore, the mobility of people and goods has to be ensured, the environmental protection standards have to be maintained and safety has to be improved. Thus, multiple synergies are used and a strategic cooperation with partners from research and industry is implemented.