The department Cardiovascular Aerospace Medicine explores acute and chronic impact of real and simulated weightlessness, extreme atmospheric conditions, nutrition and exercise on the human cardiovascular system. The major aim is to elucidate mechanisms of structural and functional adaptation of the heart and large blood vessels as well as the impact of changes in autonomic cardiovascular control. These mechanisms are examined in highly controlled studies in healthy subjects using intensive cardiovascular phenotyping. Of special interest is to study also individuals with defined genetic variants and cardiovascular diseases as a model. The results shall provide a basis to improve cardiovascular countermeasures during long term space flight and to improve therapy in patients.