The Helmholtz Alliance Robex aims to bring together technological challenges and scientific questions of space and deep-sea research, which rely on new technological solutions to exploring and observing extreme environments. Scientific advances in both environments are generally only possible by remote access and thus require very sophisticated robotic instrumentation. Up to now the scientific exploration and the technological advances in both fields of research have developed separately. However, since both environments pose similar problems with regard to their remoteness and extreme environmental conditions (e.g. strong radiation or complete darkness, extreme temperatures), common technological developments could bring substantial scientific progress to both fields. This includes technology to approach, measure, manipulate and communicate under extreme and remote conditions. Scientific advancement by innovative technology is the core of the Alliance between the research areas of deep sea and Moon, targeting research themes of basic scientific interest and of applied fields.