Power-to-X-to-Power Storage at DLR
The availability of systems for the location-independent, cycle-resistant and at the same time inexpensive storage of electrical energy on a power plant scale is considered a prerequisite for the successful implementation of the energy transition. Existing technologies will not be able to meet the growing demands in the future: The potential for pumped storage plants in Germany is largely exhausted due to their high requirements in terms of geographical location and available space. Battery storage systems are not sufficiently cycle-resistant and are not attractive in terms of price for this application.
DLR experts from the disciplines of systems process engineering, electrochemical energy technology and thermal process engineering from the Institutes of Technical Thermodynamics, Propulsion Technology, Solar Research and Flight Systems Technology have therefore joined forces to develop the electricity storage systems of tomorrow with their combined expertise: PXP storage.
DLR is working on the three main technologies of PXP storage systems with high future potential. These are
Special forms of PXP storage systems are so-called isentropic energy storage systems. These aim to minimise the losses that occur during the conversion of electrical energy into another form of energy and back to electrical energy. Ideally, such storage systems work completely loss-free, which is why they are called "isentropic". For this purpose, it is necessary to supplement electricity-heat-electricity storage with a heat pump and compressed air storage as well as electricity-gas-electricity storage with heat storage:
Basic forms of PXP storage
Special forms of PXP storage
Key components (e.g. electrolysers) and novel system concepts (e.g. the so-called Compressed Heat Energy Storage CHEST concept), DLR researchers are pursuing techno-economic as well as system analytical questions and creating market models.
In a period lasting from January 2017 to December 2019, the state of research and development will be significantly advanced through the combined expertise and collaboration of numerous DLR experts. The aim is to identify those technologies that will be needed in the coming years and decades to decarbonise the energy system and to lay the technical foundations for their realisation.