Limited range, long charging time, and uncertainty in finding charging infrastructure nearby or during a trip are common reasons against purchasing an electric vehicle. This in turn leads to a low overall demand of these vehicles. Thus, charging infrastructure available nationwide and sufficiently dimensioned for each location is essential for successful market ramp-up of electric vehicles in Germany.
It is the responsibility of the federal government, the federal states, and municipalities to ensure that the charging infrastructure is comprehensive and nationwide. For this purpose, the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) provides funding for the expansion of charging infrastructure. The central objective of the BMVI is to plan the expansion of charging infrastructure in a targeted, demand-oriented, and coordinated manner.
The BMVI commissioned the consortium of the Ingeniuergruppe IVV, the DLR Institute for Transport Research, the Institute of Urban and Transport Planning of the RWTH Aachen, and the Reiner Lemoine Institute to develop a site-selection tool for the expansion of alternative fuel infrastructure (IAK). This site-selection tool enables the BMVI to coordinate its funding projects. In addition to the expansion of charging infrastructure for battery powered electric vehicles, the site-selection tool will also determine the requirements for infrastructure for the following alternative fuels: hydrogen , LNG (liquefied natural gas) and CNG (compressed natural gas). Within the project the Institute for Transport Research focuses on the expansion of charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. Therefore, we undertake mobility analysis using the charging demand model CURRENT (Charging infrastructure for electric vehicle analysis tool).
The aim of the project is to identify the requirements of a demand-oriented expansion of charging infrastructure and alternative fuel infrastructure. This includes infrastructure for battery electric vehicles and vehicles powered by hydrogen, LNG, and CNG. The toll will provide a high-resolution spatial model to support funding decisions. The site-selection tool will be used in planning funding calls, as well as for evaluating funding proposals. The site-selection tool should be able to determine the charging demand spatially differentiated for different years with various electric vehicle stocks. In addition it should have the possibility to react to new technological, political and market changes.
In this respect, the site-selection tool will have variable and adjustable controls to address differing scenarios. These include rapid market ramp-up of electric vehicles or a higher electric range due to battery development. Thereby, allowing the influence of these scenarios on the required charging infrastructure to be determined.
The site-selection tool to determine demand-oriented charging infrastructure combines two models: CURRENT and STELLA. CURRENT is a microscopic model of the Institute of Transport Research, which determines charging demand per hour over a course of a week. STELLA, a model of the RWTH Aachen to spatially allocate charging infrastructure, is based on a four-stage model approach:
The spatial resolution of the analysis takes place on a grid with cells of 500 meters by 500 meters. The site-selection tool provides a spatially differentiated charging demand for Germany based on spatial structural data and analysis of driving and charging pattern. In the first stage, a large number of spatial structural data is collected. For example the type of a quarter, the number of households and employed persons in a quarter, the number of cars (1), in order to generate traffic per cell (2). Based on this and according to the assumption on the share of electric vehicles in the total vehicle fleet, a part of the trips made by car is electrified (3). Finally, charging demand is quantified and charging requirements are located (4) based on the trips made by electric vehicles, in order to visualize the output of the site-selection tool on a map of Germany.
The project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) and coordinated by the National Organisation of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NOW).
05/2018 - 04/2022