21. May 2018
An Antares rocket transports new experiments to the ISS for the horizons mission

Schoolchil­dren de­vise an ex­per­i­ment for Alexan­der Gerst

Antares launch
Image 1/4, Credit: NASA.

Antares launch

On 21 May 2018 at 10:44 CEST (04:44 lo­cal time), a set of new ex­per­i­ments set out for the Hori­zons mis­sion, car­ried in­to space by an Antares rock­et launched from Wal­lops Is­land, Vir­ginia (USA).
Alexan­der Gerst ac­ti­vates EML and MagVec­tor/MFX
Image 2/4, Credit: NASA/ESA.

Alexander Gerst activates EML and MagVector/MFX

The Ger­man ESA as­tro­naut Alexan­der Gerst was on du­ty from 28 May to 10 Novem­ber 2014 for the ‘Blue Dot’ mis­sion on the In­ter­na­tion­al Space Sta­tion (ISS). Dur­ing the 165-day mis­sion, he was in­volved in 100 dif­fer­ent ex­per­i­ments from all the ISS part­ners. In this im­age, Gerst is switch­ing on the ESA ex­per­i­ments EML and MagVec­tor/MFX in the Colum­bus lab­o­ra­to­ry.
Alexan­der Gerst work­ing on the fur­nace of the EML
Image 3/4, Credit: NASA/ESA.

Alexander Gerst working on the furnace of the EML

Dur­ing the Blue Dot mis­sion, the Ger­man ESA as­tro­naut Alexan­der Gerst in­stalled new com­po­nents for the fur­nace of the elec­tro­mag­net­ic lev­i­ta­tor (EML) on the ISS.
Melting alloys without a container
Melt­ing al­loys with­out a con­tain­er
Image 4/4, Credit: DLR (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Melting alloys without a container

In mi­cro­grav­i­ty con­di­tions, the elec­tro­mag­net­ic lev­i­ta­tor can be used to melt al­loys with­out a con­tain­er. An elec­tro­mag­net­ic coil keeps the sam­ple in its float­ing po­si­tion.

  • On 21 May 2018 at 10:39 CEST, a set of new experiments set out for the horizons mission on the ISS, in a Cygnus transporter on board an Antares rocket launched from Wallops Island, Virginia (USA).
  • Its cargo includes experiments relating to planetary research and communications, not to mention an experiment that is the brainchild of German schoolchildren.
  • The mission of the German ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst is set to run from 6 June to 13 December 2018.
  • Focus: Spaceflight

Space research, courtesy of schoolchildren: this and other experiments for the horizons mission of the German ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst are now en route to the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments are being carried by a Cygnus transporter on board an Antares rocket that took off from Wallops Island, Virginia (United States) at 10:44 CEST (04:44 local time) on 21 May 2018, bound for the ISS, where it will dock on 24 May. Gerst is due to take off for his horizons mission on the ISS on 6 June 2018, on board a Soyuz rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrom in Kazakhstan. He will be stationed on the ISS until 13 December. "Alexander Gerst has a very special role in this mission," says Volker Schmid, horizons Mission Manager at the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR). "He will be the first German and second European to command the space station and its crew, a role that he will assume from early October until mid-December."

Space insights, courtesy of a mouse

In Germany, the TV show 'Sendung mit der Maus' explains things to children in a playful way, featuring a cartoon mouse as the main character. Alexander Gerst and scientists at DLR appealed to young fans of the programme by asking children to submit ideas for a research experiment on board the International Space Station. Of the many exciting suggestions put forward, an experiment will now be carried out to find out whether flying a mini air-powered rocket in the ISS is possible. In order to determine whether such an experiment could be carried out in space, it was first tested at DLR.

For materials, they only used things readily available on the ISS – as such, the 'rocket' comprises one of the plastic syringes that the astronauts use for experiments. This is filled with a crushed effervescent tablet and water, so that it forms bubbles and builds up gas pressure. Once this pressure is sufficiently high, the rocket is able to launch. In order for this mini bullet to fly in a controlled manner, a small plastic tube is attached to the syringe, with a piece of string fed through it. The rocket can then glide safely through the space station along the taut string. In another mini experiment, Alexander Gerst will test whether it is possible to propel oneself forward in microgravity conditions using swimming strokes.

A planet simulator on the ISS

The MagVector/MFX experiment investigates the interactions of Earth's magnetic field using a variable electrical conductor. The system was installed in the Columbus Laboratory as part of the Blue Dot mission in 2014, and has since successfully completed over 2000 operating hours. Now, two new sensor boxes – each holding 16 sensors – will be installed as part of the MFX-2 experiment. Eleven new material samples, such as pieces of meteorites found in various locations across Europe, will be inserted into these boxes. This will make MagVector the first planetary simulator on the ISS. Scientists will be able to use it to simulate celestial bodies and what happens to them when flying through the solar magnetic field. The samples will be monitored by scientists from the DLR Institute of Planetary Research in Berlin-Adlershof.

A boost for worldwide radio communications – the MacronISSta experiment

The MarconISSta experiment, devised by scientists at the Aerospace Institute (Institut für Luft- und Raumfahrt) at the Technical University of Berlin, analyses the capacity of radio frequencies worldwide. These frequencies are needed to control satellites and download their data. Today, some frequency bands are so heavily used that radio traffic is increasingly disrupted. To carry out measurements, the experiment uses the ARISS antenna on the space station, which was installed in October 2007.

The data will be fed back to the ground station at the TU Berlin at regular intervals, allowing detailed analysis of radio frequency bands to be carried out swiftly and using the latest data for the first time. Not only will this enable the scientists to determine which frequencies are currently being used, but it will also allow them to identify potential sources of interference. As a result, the likelihood of radio interference will be easier to predict, while unused frequency bands can be integrated more effectively. Going forward, this will enable better coordination of satellite missions, while also improving radio communications on Earth, for instance in air and sea transport.

Wireless communication on space missions

How can wireless communication for space missions be improved? Scientists are looking to answer this question through the Wireless Compose (Wireless Communication and Positioning Experiment) technology experiment. The network consists of five fixed sensors, one base station and two mobile sensors for motion tracking. The system will be tested in the Columbus module of the ISS from the beginning of June. During the test phase, a reference system will be operated on Earth in the DLR EDEN ISS greenhouse, an experimental laboratory in Antarctica. The system was developed and built by the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen.

EML – Better materials and components for industry

The cargo also includes an important technical upgrade for the electromagnetic levitator (EML. It was successfully installed and commissioned by Alexander Gerst in the European Columbus module in October 2014 during his Blue Dot mission. The EML is used to make metallic samples float through electromagnetic levitation, so that they do not come into contact with other materials, allowing their properties to be investigated. This avoids contamination caused by melting, which would occur in a laboratory on Earth, as the sample would come into contact with its container. These unique conditions allow high-precision studies of the liquid state and solidification of metals.

The upgrade that is now being sent to the ISS includes replacement electronic components and a software update, and should allow the EML’s high-speed camera to be used more efficiently, thus enabling up to five times more experiments to be carried out within a given amount of time. As such, the scientists hope to be able to answer even more questions about the basic physical properties of metal alloys. In the long term, such findings should lead to the production of lighter and more stable materials for industry, perhaps even with completely new properties.

Contact
  • Diana Gonzalez
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    Ger­man Space Agen­cy at DLR
    Strat­e­gy and Com­mu­ni­ca­tions
    Telephone: +49 228 447-388
    Königswinterer Straße 522-524
    53227 Bonn
    Contact
  • Volker Schmid
    ISS Spe­cial­ist Group Lead­er, Head of the Cos­mic Kiss Mis­sion
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    Ger­man Space Agen­cy at DLR
    Sci­ence and Ex­plo­ration
    Königswinterer Straße 522-524
    53227 Bonn
    Contact
  • Thomas Driebe
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    Ger­man Space Agen­cy at DLR
    Mi­cro­grav­i­ty Re­search and Life Sci­ences
    Königswinterer Straße 522-524
    53227 Bonn
    Contact

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