25. March 2021
High data rates for small satellites

DLR laser ter­mi­nal in space es­tab­lish­es con­tact with Japanese ground sta­tion

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Space
University of Stuttgart's Flying Laptop satellite
Uni­ver­si­ty of Stuttgart's Fly­ing Lap­top satel­lite
Image 1/3, Credit: ©University of Stuttgart

University of Stuttgart's Flying Laptop satellite

DLR’s OSIRIS ex­per­i­ment is in­te­grat­ed in Uni­ver­si­ty of Stuttgart’s Fly­ing Lap­top satel­lite. The satel­lite sup­ports high-pre­ci­sion point­ing, in or­der to di­rect the laser beam emit­ted from OSIRIS to­wards an op­ti­cal ground sta­tion on Earth.
NICT’s optical ground station with its 20-centimetre telescope and the dome for its one-metre telescope
NICT’s op­ti­cal ground sta­tion with its 20-cen­time­tre tele­scope and the dome for its one-me­tre tele­scope
Image 2/3, Credit: National Institute of Information and Communications Technology

NICT’s optical ground station with its 20-centimetre telescope and the dome for its one-metre telescope

The op­ti­cal ground sta­tion op­er­at­ed by the Na­tion­al In­sti­tute of In­for­ma­tion and Com­mu­ni­ca­tions Tech­nol­o­gy (NICT) in Tokyo, Japan, in­cludes a one-me­tre tele­scope, which is equipped for chan­nel mea­sure­ments, and a 20-cen­time­tre tele­scope for ad­di­tion­al mea­sure­ments.
Flight model of the OSIRIS laser terminal
Flight mod­el of the OSIRIS laser ter­mi­nal
Image 3/3, Credit: © DLR. All rights reserved

Flight model of the OSIRIS laser terminal

The OSIRIS ex­per­i­ment con­tains com­po­nents for pow­er sup­ply as well as laser sources for da­ta trans­mis­sion. OSIRIS on Fly­ing Lap­top is the first gen­er­a­tion of OSIRIS laser ter­mi­nals de­vel­oped by the DLR In­sti­tute of Com­mu­ni­ca­tions and Nav­i­ga­tion for use on small satel­lites.
  • For the first time, a signal from DLR's OSIRISv1 terminal was received at an NICT ground station in Japan.
  • OSIRISv1 was developed by the DLR Institute of Communications and Navigation and launched on board the 'Flying Laptop' satellite in 2017 in cooperation with the Institute of Space Systems at the University of Stuttgart.
  • Through optical communication systems that use laser beams for data transmission, a significant increase in data rates between satellites and ground stations is possible.
  • Focus Spaceflight, digitalisation, satellite communications

The resolution of cameras and other sensors on Earth observation satellites is continuously increasing. This leads to vast amounts of data, which are still being transmitted to Earth using radio systems. The data link between the satellite and Earth limits the capability of these systems. A significant increase in data rates is possible with optical communication systems that use lasers to transmit data. Numerous images can be transmitted with high resolution. As part of an international cooperation, researchers from the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) and the Japanese National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), supported by the University of Stuttgart, have started channel measurements for the transmission of data by laser in Japan. Recently, a first data link from space was received from the optical terminal 'OSIRISv1' at an optical ground station in Tokyo.

"Satellite-based laser communication heralds a new era in satellite communications," says Christian Fuchs from the DLR Institute of Communications and Navigation. Fuchs oversees the Institute's work in the field of optical communications. Next-generation systems already enable data rates of up to 10 gigabits per second. They are also smaller, lighter and require less electrical power than comparable radio systems. Since laser beams do not penetrate clouds, worldwide networks of optical ground stations are necessary to achieve the desired availability. OSIRISv1 (Optical Space Infrared Downlink System) was developed by DLR in cooperation with the Institute of Space Systems at the University of Stuttgart. It was successfully launched into space on the 'Flying Laptop' satellite in 2017.

Joint test with researchers in Japan

During the joint test, the first measurement data, such as the received signal power, were recorded. This makes it possible to evaluate the characteristics of the atmospheric transmission path. On the one hand this can be used to optimise the design of future systems and on the other hand to plan networks. At the wavelength of 1550 nanometres, which is specified in the standards, there is very little measurement data available to date.

The precise beam alignment, which is made possible by the attitude control system of the Flying Laptop satellite is also worthy of note. OSIRISv1 itself has no mechanical elements for beam steering. Therefore, the satellite's attitude control system must perform this alignment. The University of Stuttgart has successfully optimised the attitude control performance in joint tests with DLR at its ground station in Oberpfaffenhofen.

The measurement data obtained is now being evaluated by the teams and will be the basis for further tests in the near future – both for the NICT ground station and other partner facilities worldwide. The current measurements in Japan add to a long history of joint tests that have so far taken place using Japanese satellites and the Oberpfaffenhofen ground station. Trials with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) OICETS satellite the took place in 2006 and 2009 and trials with the NICT Small Optical TrAnsponder (SOTA) payload were conducted in 2013.

Further international tests with DLR payloads will take place soon. On 24 January 2021, the world’s smallest laser terminal, OSIRIS-CubeL, which DLR developed in cooperation with Tesat-Spacecom, was launched on board the PIXL-1 satellite. As early as next year, OSIRISv3 is to be installed on the Airbus Defence and Space Bartolomeo platform on board the International Space Station (ISS).

Project partners

NICT

The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Tokyo conducts research and development on optical communications in space to further develop future satellite communications. The SOTA (Small Optical TrAnsponder) satellite, which was tested in orbit from 2014 to 2016, involved optical ground stations in Japan as well as research institutions such as DLR, the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). This has enabled optical communication tests to be conducted with ground stations and valuable data to be obtained from the tests. To date, NICT has signed a joint research agreement with DLR.

University of Stuttgart

The Satellite Technology Department of the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart develops, builds, integrates, qualifies and operates small satellite systems, among other research fields. In the field of satellite research, they also develop new technologies and payload systems and test them under space conditions. This includes the further development and application of new methods in the field of infrastructure for the construction, qualification and operation of satellites. The first satellite from the University of Stuttgart is the small satellite 'Flying Laptop', which has been successfully operated by the control centre at the university since July 2017. With a mass of 110 kilograms, the ‘Flying Laptop’ is the largest and most complex satellite developed by a German university to date.

Contact
  • Andreas Ellmerer
    Ed­i­tor
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    Me­dia Re­la­tions
    Telephone: +49 2203 601-3983
    Linder Höhe
    51147 Cologne
    Contact
  • Christian Fuchs
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)

    DLR In­sti­tute of Com­mu­ni­ca­tions and Nav­i­ga­tion
    Telephone: +49 8153 28-1547
    Linder Höhe
    51147 Köln
    Contact
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