4. November 2016

Antarc­tic veg­eta­bles for space – Green­house cre­at­ed for the South Pole

EDEN ISS green­house in the South Pole
Image 1/6, Credit: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)

EDEN ISS greenhouse in the South Pole

Dur­ing the Antarc­tic win­ter, the en­vi­ron­ment is ex­treme and hos­tile to life. Tem­per­a­tures drop to mi­nus 30 de­grees Cel­sius and no sun­light breaks the dark­ness of the po­lar night for months. The green­house has par­tic­u­lar­ly ef­fec­tive in­su­la­tion, as from De­cem­ber 2017 on­wards it must de­fy Antarc­tic con­di­tions.
De­liv­ery of the green­house con­tain­er at the DLR site in Bre­men
Image 2/6, Credit: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)

Delivery of the greenhouse container at the DLR site in Bremen

Be­fore leav­ing for the Antarc­tic, the EDEN ISS green­house will be in­stalled and test­ed at the DLR site in Bre­men.
View of the green­house con­struc­tion from above
Image 3/6, Credit: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)

View of the greenhouse construction from above

The EDEN ISS green­house will be di­vid­ed in­to an area for plant cul­ti­va­tion (right) and a work­ing area (left).
In­stal­la­tion of the green­house con­tain­er
Image 4/6, Credit: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)

Installation of the greenhouse container

The in­stal­la­tion of ba­sic sup­plies will be com­plet­ed around Christ­mas, fol­lowed by the work­ing area be­fore the tri­al starts in the spring of 2017.
Neu­may­er Sta­tion III in the Antarc­tic
Image 5/6, Credit: Alfred-Wegener-Institut /Thomas Steuer (CC-BY 4.0) .

Neumayer Station III in the Antarctic

For one year, DLR en­gi­neer Paul Zabel will call the Neu­may­er Sta­tion III, run by the Al­fred We­gen­er In­sti­tute, home. From De­cem­ber 2017 he will build and op­er­ate a green­house there as part of the EDEN ISS project.
DLR en­gi­neer Paul Zabel
Image 6/6, Credit: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)

DLR engineer Paul Zabel

DLR en­gi­neer Paul Zabel will set off for the Antarc­tic in De­cem­ber 2017, where he will spend one year run­ning the EDEN ISS green­house.

The menu for polar explorers in the Antarctic is not usually very exciting. Often, there are only durable goods, especially in the polar winter, when the researchers are cut off from the outside world for months. But by the end of next year, the EDEN ISS green­house will supply the German Neu­may­er III po­lar sta­tion with fresh fruit and vegetables. It will also test how fresh plant-based food could be cultivated on the International Space Station ISS and during future missions to the Moon and Mars. The not quite so everyday Video: Build­ing and set­up EDEN ISS green­house (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR) site in Bremen and its conversion into a self-sufficient biotope for salad, herbs, cucumbers and maybe even strawberries. DLR researcher Paul Zabel is already preparing for his extraordinary mission to the End of the World.

Defying the Arctic winter

A great deal of state-of-the-art technology is required to cultivate plants at the South Pole. "First of all, we need to provide the basic needs of the plants in the polar greenhouse, which cannot be taken for granted in the Antarctic," says Zabel, of the DLR Institute of Space Systems. "Pipes to supply sufficient water, lamps to provide the right light and even filters and nozzles for a growth-promoting air mixture must first be laid and installed." During the Antarctic winter, the environment is extreme and hostile to life. Temperatures drop to minus 30 degrees Celsius and no sunlight breaks the darkness of the polar night for months. The greenhouse has particularly effective insulation, as from December 2017 onwards it must defy Antarctic conditions.

Plant cultivation without soil

An essential factor for horticulture in extreme conditions is having the right water supply. Large water tanks are therefore installed in the floor of the greenhouse container. In the eternal ice, these are then filled with previously melted, filtered and purified water from the Neumayer III Antarctic station operated by the Al­fred We­gen­er In­sti­tute (AWI). "The water is not fed directly to the plants but is rather computer-controlled to add a special nutrient solution," explains Zabel. "Every five to 10 minutes, the plants are sprayed automatically with the water-nutrient mixture so that they can be cultivated completely without using soil." The process, called aeroponics, basically saves the transportation of large quantities of soil.

Sterile air with increased carbon dioxide content

The air in the greenhouse will be adapted as much as possible to the needs of the plants. For this purpose, bottles of carbon dioxide will accompany the container to the Antarctic to enrich the carbon dioxide content in the greenhouse air. "It will be crucial to keep the air free of harmful germs and fungal spores," says EDEN ISS Project Coordinator Daniel Schubert from the DLR Institute of Space Systems. "To do this, we are installing various air filters as well as a system for air sterilisation using UV radiation." Like a space station, the greenhouse will have a completely closed air circuit, including an airlock through which Zabel will enter the greenhouse every day. The closed circuit also allows all the water that the plants release into the air to be recovered and fed back to them. "I will, so to speak, only take the water that I harvest out of the greenhouse with the ripe fruit. The rest will be reused," adds Zabel.

Special light for every plant

To survive in the polar night, the plants, in addition to air, need a nutrient-water mixture and a blue and red light cocktail, which makes vials and plants glow violet. "In order to grow each plant species individually, we are building water-cooled LED systems in which each LED can be individually controlled via a computer," explains Schubert. The plants will be illuminated for 16 hours in an implied day-night rhythm and will have eight hours of nightly rest without light. Engineer Zabel also needs the right light in Antarctic darkness: "In addition to the dim LED light, there will be a white light for me, so that I can hopefully work well in the greenhouse."

The installation of basic supplies will be completed around Christmas, followed by the working area, the changing room and the computer technology required for Zabel's stay by spring. After that, a trial will start at the DLR site in Bremen, before it is shipped en route to Antarctica in October 2017.

Preparations for the dress rehearsal on ice

Since 2011, the DLR Institute of Space Systems has been researching the artificial conditions under which salads or cucumbers flourish and taste best in the established EDEN laboratory. The Antarctic will be the field test for whether plant cultivation in total isolation is successful. For DLR researcher Zabel, it will be a very personal challenge to hold out for a year in the eternal ice. He is cur­rent­ly in­ten­sive­ly study­ing the art of plant cul­ti­va­tion at Wa­genin­gen Uni­ver­si­ty in the Nether­lands, one of the project‘s partners. In the summer of 2017, there will also be a first trial cohabitation for the entire overwintering crew in Bremerhaven and then a challenging survival training course in the Alps.

The partners

For the greenhouse to be able to operate in Antarctica, numerous international partners are working together under the leadership of DLR: In addition to the Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany) and Wageningen University and Research (Netherlands), Airbus Defence and Space (Germany), LIQUIFER (Austria), the National Research Council (Italy), the University of Guelph (Canada), Enginsoft (Italy), Thales Alenia Space (Italy), Aero Sekur (Italy), Heliospectra (Sweden), Limerick Institute of Technology (Ireland), and Telespazio (Italy) are part of the EDEN ISS project consortium.

  • Falk Dambowsky
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    Me­dia Re­la­tions
    Telephone: +49 2203 601-3959
    Fax: +49 2203 601-3249
    Linder Höhe
    51147 Cologne
  • Paul Zabel
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    Telephone: +49 421 24420-1273
    Linder Höhe
    51147 Köln
  • Daniel Schubert
    Ger­man Aerospace Cen­ter (DLR)
    In­sti­tute of Space Sys­tems
    Telephone: +49 421 24420-1136
    Robert-Hooke-Straße 7
    28359 Bremen
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